Carbon 14 dating analysis
Guillermo Gonzalez for sending me the issue of BAR with the Shroud article last November and encouraging me to act on it.Stephen Mattingly - Previously unpublished response to the article "A Letter to Hershel Shanks, Editor of BAR" by Dr.Alan Whanger - Previously unpublished response to the article When the Shroud of Turin went on display this spring for the first time in 20 years, it made the cover of Time magazine with the blurb "Is this Jesus?" In BAR, we summarized the controversy that has enshrouded this relic, venerated for centuries as the burial cloth of Jesus ("Remains to Be Seen," Strata, Julyl August 1998, p 13).
Nearby, workers also uncovered an assortment of thick and heavily fossilized bones.
is incorporated in the organic material, forming its carbon skeleton. The radioactive half-life is higher than a year only for carbon-14, its maximum value for the other isotopes being around 20 minutes. Production fluctuates due to variation in cosmic ray intensity.
Equilibrium between the specific activity of atmospheric carbon and that of organic material is then finally reached and maintained by carbon recycling. This fluctuation results from various factors that are not yet well understood, but mainly include the 11-year solar cycle and, on a larger temporal scale, variations in the terrestrial magnetic field that serves as a shield against cosmic rays In nuclear reactors, carbon-14 is produced from reactions in the fuel, the core structural materials and the moderator.
The production rate depends on the spectrum and the neutron flux, on cross-sections and on the concentration of the following target elements: uranium, plutonium, nitrogen and oxygen.
Water in the primary coolant circuit of pressurised water reactors contains excess hydrogen that combines with oxygen from radiolysis.